Cardiotonic steroids on the road to anticancer therapy

Parts utilized
Pulp, fruit, shoots, leaves, seeds.

Uses
Edibility / Nutrition
- One of the commonest vegetables raised in the Philippines.
- Flesh is white and soft, boiled and seasoned or used in stews or with fish.
- Pulp is an ingredient in many confections.
- Fruit is a good source of iron, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin B.
- In West Tropical Africa, young shoots, leaves, and flower buds used as vegetable.
- Shoots boiled with milk or coconut milk to reduce the unpleasant flavor.
- Young fruits should be consumed within 2 weeks after harvest. Longer storage causes rapid water loss.
- In Japan , long strips of fruit skin are boiled, soaked in soya sauce with a little sugar, and used as sushi ingredient.
Folkloric
- Young shoots and leaves used for enema.
- Pulp used as purgative adjunct; also used for coughs, asthma, and poison antidote.
- Green fruit in syrup used as a pectoral.
- Leaf juice or sugared decoction used as emetic. Also used in jaundice.
- Crushed leaves used for baldness; applied to the head for headaches.
- Seeds also used as anthelmintic.
- Juice of fruit used for stomach acidity, indigestion and ulcers.
- Poultice of seeds used for boils.
- In the Gold Coast young shoots and leaves used for enema.
- Pulp occasionally used as a adjunct to purgatives. Also used in coughs, and as antidote to certain poisons.
- Externally the pulp is applied as a poultice and cooling preparation to the shaved head in cases of delirium and applied to the soles in burning of the feet.
- Seed oil used as emollient application to the head and as a means of relieving headache. Oil also administered internally.
- In Ayurveda , used as general tonic.
- In China , used for diabetes. Seed oil applied to headache. Decoction used in the treatment of anasarca, ascites, and beriberi. ( 50 )
Others
- The dry shell of the fruit used for domestic utensils, bowls, pipes, bottles, horns or musical instruments.
- Half-fruit shell used as a hat.
- In Kenya, the Luo make a large bugle from the bottle gourds, blown during ceremonies and chasing away animals. Also used for smoking cannabis.

Constituents
• Contains alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, triterpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acid.
• Bark yield the alkaloids echitenine, ditamine; crystalline and toxic echitamine; ditaine; and an uncrystallizable and bitter principle.
• Study isolated from the mother-liquors of echitamine hydrochloride, a crystalline alkaloid, echitamidine.
• A petroleum ether extract yielded echikautschin, echicerin, and echiretin.
• The bark contains indole alkaloids, including reserpine, echitamine, alstonine, tetrahydroalstonine, alstonidine, yohimbine and others.
• Antihypertensive effect due to reserpine and echitamine.
• A study revealed three new indole alkaloids: nareline ethyl ether, 5-epi-nareline ethyl ether and scholarine-N(4)oxide.
• Phytochemical screening of stem bark fractions yielded the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, fixed oils and fats. ( 35 )

Cardiotonic steroids on the road to anticancer therapy

cardiotonic steroids on the road to anticancer therapy

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