The gains made by athletes in uncontrolled observations have been much more impressive. Weight gains of thirty or forty pounds, coupled with thirty percent increases in strength, are not unusual. Such case studies lack credibility because of the absence of scientific controls. However, it would be foolish to completely disregard such observations because the "subjects" have been highly trained and motivated see the articles on pharmacology of sport and sports medicine in the countries of the former Soviet Union for more information on anabolic steroids.
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are integral components to the cell mediated immune response to injury. The expression of these cytokines can be effectively inhibited by corticosteroids 8 IL-1 originates from macrophages, monocytes and various parenchymal cells and induce the production of endothelial based proteins. This results in thrombus formation and ultimately the activation of inflammatory and immune cells. IL-1 also affects procoagulant proteins, adhesive factors and the metabolism of arachidonic acid within the endothelial cell. TNF stimulates the production of various chemotactic mechanisms from neutrophils and granulocytic proteins.