A relatively new way of administration of therapeutic peptides and proteins (such as cytokines, domain antibodies, Fab fragments or single chain antibodies) is sublingual administration. Peptides and proteins are not stable in the gastro-intestinal tract, mainly due to degradation by enzymes and pH differences. As a consequence, most peptides (such as insulin, exenatide, vasopressin, etc...) or proteins (such as interferon, EPO and interleukins) have to be administered by injection. Recently, new technologies have allowed sublingual administration of such molecules. Increased efforts are underway to deliver macromolecules (peptides, proteins and immunotherapies) by sublingual route, by companies such as Novo Nordisk, Sanofi and BioLingus.
One of the most common questions asked about HGH is whether it can make users grow taller. Between the ages of about 12 and 18, your body is still growing. During this time, the administration of HGH can help you add inches to your height. As such, HGH is an essential part of therapy for children who have growth disorders such as dwarfism. However, between 18 and 21 years old, growth plates on your bones fuse together and essentially “lock” your height. Administering HGH may cause individual bones in your body to thicken, but it will not lengthen them.
Upon cell death, the proteolytic enzymes stored in pancreatic acinar cells immediately begin reacting with the cells themselves, destroying normal cell structure. (Ideally, histological specimens are fixed by perfusion of fixative through blood vessels, to preserve cells quickly and simultaneously throughout the specimen. This procedure is not available for post-mortem specimens, where the deceased may wait several hours before autopsy. Even specimens removed surgically are usually dropped as bulk samples into fixative, so preservation may vary between the center and the periphery of the specimen.